noun: \tek-ˈnä-lə-jē\
The use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems.
A machine, piece of equipment, method, etc., that is created by technology.
plural: tech·nol·o·gies

Advanced composites and thermosets have revolutionized wind turbine, aircraft, aerospace vehicle, and automotive development. But companies using these materials often don’t understand how the materials cure during manufacturing. Only Dielectric Cure Monitoring, also known as Dielectric Analysis (DEA), offers critical insights into composite and thermoset processing in real time. This assures users of the integrity of their processes and their materials—and of the reliability of their finished products. Lambient Technologies’ principals have driven Dielectric Cure Monitoring innovations for more than 30 years. We offer global reach, unparalleled experience in the composites field, and customer service that is second to none.

technology overview

Dielectric Cure Monitoring Applications
When working on a new thermoset, the cure process is essentially unknown. What happens when the material is heated? When is the best time to apply pressure? How fast does the material react at different temperatures? Dielectric Analysis (DEA) complements more conventional thermal analysis techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to bridge the gap between laboratory and manufacturing environments.
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Ion Viscosity and Its use in DEA
Dielectric cure monitoring, also known as DEA, measures a polymer’s resistivity (r) and permittivity (e’), which are the material’s dielectric properties. In general, resistivity provides the most useful information about cure state.
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Guidelines for Dielectric Cure Monitoring
Although the method of DEA is simple—place a sample on the sensor, heat and start data acquisition—care and good practice are very helpful for making good measurements. Here are some guidelines for successful dielectric cure monitoring.
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Distributed Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Composite Aerospace Structures
Distributed Dielectric Cure Monitoring (D-DEA) is a new concept for the application of Dielectric Analysis (DEA) in manufacturing. Instead of a single expensive base instrument and many long extension cables, D-DEA uses multiple inexpensive instruments connected along a single RS-485 communications line.
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Distributed Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades
Distributed Dielectric Cure Monitoring for the first time allows the use of DEA to monitor many locations in very large structures like wind turbine blades and composite beams. Distributed Dielectric Cure Monitoring also avoids the tangle of extension cables used for monitoring parts requiring multiple sensors, such as aircraft and spacecraft components.
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Electrode and DC Resistance Cure Monitoring
Dielectric cure monitors measure the electrical properties of a thermoset with AC signals across a range of frequencies. Measurement of resistance with DC methods can also reveal information about a material, but has disadvantages and limitations that the user must consider.
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Equipment for Dielectric Cure Monitoring
Dielectric cure monitors measure the dielectric properties of material at a single frequency or across a range of frequencies, selectively revealing the influence of mobile ions and dipole rotation. Ion viscosity of a material is frequency independent resistivity (rDC) and is often proportional to the change in mechanical viscosity before gelation and proportional to the change in modulus after gelation. Consequently, ion viscosity is a useful probe of material state through the entire cure.
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about us

Lambient Technologies LLC, based in Boston, Massachusetts, develops instruments, sensors, and software for monitoring the dielectric properties of curing polymers. These properties provide unique insights into the chemistry, formulation, reaction rate, viscosity, and cure state of epoxies, polystyrenes, polyurethanes, silicones, SMC, BMC, and other types of thermoset materials.

Dielectric cure monitoring, or Dielectric Analysis (DEA), has wide application in research and development, quality assurance and quality control, and manufacturing.

Lambient Technologies’ products are designed for flexibility and ease of use. Together they form an integrated system for studying polymers and optimizing manufacturing processes.

Lambient Technologies was founded in 2008 by members of the team that commercialized products by Micromet Instruments; a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spin-off that pioneered the technology of dielectric cure monitoring in the 1980s. Since then, members of our team have developed dielectric cure monitoring products for Metrissa/Holometrix and Netzsch Instruments, giving us more experience in this technology than any other company in the field. Our History

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Dr. Gotro hosts the Polymer Innovation Blog. In his blog, he shares some of his experiences, tips, and “tricks of the trade” to get more out of your innovation efforts and discusses new trends and technical advances in the polymer industry. Here are some of Dr. Gotro's recent discussions regarding Dielectric Cure Monitoring.

Part 1: Background
Part 2: Relationships Between Dielectric Measurements and Curing
Part 3: Isothermal Curing
Part 4: Non-Isothermal Curing
Part 5: Simultaneous Measurement of Viscosity and Dielectric Loss Factor
Part 6: Simultaneous Viscosity and Dielectric Loss Factor Measurements
Part 7: Dipoles in Action
Part 8: An Interesting Experiment
Part 9: Lamination Process Monitoring
Part 10: What does dielectric cure monitoring measure?
Part 11: Identifying Ion Viscosity
Part 12: Dielectric Sensors
Part 13: Equipment for Dielectric Cure Monitoring
Part 14: Cure Monitoring of SMC and BMC Molding
Part 15: Cure Monitoring of Carbon Reinforced Prepreg
Part 16: Do's and Dont's for Dielectrtic Cure Monitoring

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